The evolution of such notions as heat, temperature, and entropy in the twentieth century is considered along with new relative notions. The new notions were created in connection with the demands of informatics as well as a result of the appearance of new scientific lines (computer simulation of physical properties, theory of nonlinear oscillations, radiation solid state physics). Some examples from different fields of physics and mathematics which had a great impact on the notion evolution are given. The relation between scientific uncertainty and information, molecular dynamics method, and temperature of a solid are considered in detail. An example of self-organization of chaos is briefly discussed.