The article presents the results of computer simulation and physical research of severe deformation by free torsion of long-length specimens with a round cross-section of steel 10 at a temperature of 600°C. Based on virtual approaches in the Deform 3D software package, the deformed state of the samples, including the distribution of accumulated strain in the bulk workpiece, was investigated. A physical experiment was carried out, the structure and microhardness in the longitudinal section of the samples were studied. The principles of the mutual influence of the degree of anisotropy of the deformed state on the formation of the structure and mechanical properties are established. The anisotropic (gradient) nature of the formation of the structure and mechanical properties in bulk samples using the free torsion method and the accumulation of super high, up to e~6, large shear strains in the precrystallization temperature range of plastic processing is established.