The processing of metallic materials through the application Thermomechanical Processing (TMP) has now become of major importance in the world research and industrial companies. A great attention is paid to study of mechanism TMP applied to different techniques and technological processes providing ultrafine-grained state of metal materials including submicro – and nanocrystalline ones. The main development in terms of obtaining bulk metallic materials received in the recent years, various schemes of TMP of metallic materials, which allows to realize the severe plastic deformation (SPD). The approach usually propose realization of large plastic strains, providing a well-developed fragmented substructure with the creation of high-angle misorientation between the fragments of the substructure. This paper discusses the physical fundamentals and various methods of thermomechanical processing, applied to single and multiphase steels and alloys ensuring the produce ultrafine-grained (UFG) metallic materials.