The following main tendencies in the evolution of metal science are described: development of new materials with predetermined mechanical, physical and functional properties as e.g. amorphous materials, ultra-fine-grained (including nanostructured) etc. Advanced resource-saving technologies applied to traditional and new materials as e.g. different schemes of thermomechanical processing, cyclic thermal treatment, cyclic deformation treatment etc. are presented. Application of advanced techniques: laser beam, highenergy electron-beam, plasma and simulation technique are described as well.