The physical fundamentals, resource-saving technique and modelling of Thermo- mechanical Processing (TMP) applied to steels and alloys are described. Structural and phase transformations under TMP and their role in formation of final structure and mechanical properties in the different steels and alloys are presented. The basic physical principles of TMP as a base for developing of new resource-saving technologies of metal productsmanu-facturing and examples of industrial application are presented. Different TMP schemes developed for producing of bar and sheet rolling products, annular billets cylindrical billets with variable sections of profile are demonstrated. Modelling, including Physical and Numerical simulation, Experimental Planning and FEM applied to control structure and mechanicalproperties of TMP treated products are presented.