The effects of chemical surface treatment on the hemp fibers and mechanical properties of hemp fiber composites were investigated. After chemical treatment of the fibers, the density and weight loss were measured. The surface morphologies of fibers were observed using SEM, and FT-IR was utilized to characterize the chemically modified fibers. Among the tested samples, the 4 wt.% NaOH-treated fiber composites demonstrated the best mechanical properties. The fracture surfaces of the composites were also observed by SEM.